The Gwent Levels has a particular beauty on a winter's day. Under heavy skies a murmuration of starlings twists and turns over vast reedbeds where dazzling white little egrets are feeding.
Water voles live here but they're shy. Perhaps they're taking refuge from the drizzle under the bullrushes.
This is one of the UK's most unique landscapes, sweeping the Severn Estuary coastline from Cardiff to the Severn Crossing. A series of fenland habitats is made up of land reclaimed from the sea during Roman times. Distinct field patterns are shaped by a network of reens, or drainage channels. Closer to the sea are salt marshes and mudflats.
It's a landscape loved by local people.
"I love the bleakness, especially on a day like this," says Catherine Linstrum, joint chair of the Campaign Against the Levels Motorway (CALM).
Catherine lives at St Brides and Wentlooge, a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI). The proposed M4 extension would cut it in two.
"There's such a diversity of birdlife here. We've seen everything from sparrowhawks to bitterns. This shows how healthy the landscape is," says Catherine.
In 2018 a pair of common cranes was spotted at Barecroft Common nature reserve. It's thought the cranes had come from a population released into a neighbouring reserve in Somerset between 2010 and 2014. Native common cranes died out in the UK more than 400 years ago.
Neighbouring Magor Marsh is the last relatively intact area of fenland on the Gwent Levels. It's owned by Gwent Wildlife Trust and is a fantastic haven for nature. It's home to one of the UK's few remaining shrill carder bee populations. This tiny bee is now found at only a handful of sites.
A long road
In 1991 the Welsh Office, the then government department for Wales, proposed a new section of road to take traffic off a heavily-used section of the M4 at Newport. Proponents argued that it would promote economic development in south Wales.
Friends of the Earth first began campaigning against the road in 1993, fearing it would cause irreparable damage to the Gwent Levels landscape and wildlife. The original scheme was also expected to be extremely costly.
Following a major campaign by local residents and environmental organisations, the deputy first minister of Wales rejected the plans for a new road in 2009.
The evidence is there that new roads create more traffic. These plans fail to take into account induced demand – if there is more road space demand for road space will increase.Catherine Linstrum, joint chair of CALM
But in December 2011 chancellor George Osborne revived the project. He announced that he would discuss options for improving the M4 with the Welsh government, including new options for finance.
In 2014 the Welsh transport minister approved plans for the so-called black route, a 23 km bypass running south of Newport.
A public inquiry into this proposal ended in March 2018 and reported to the Welsh Government in September. It recommended that on balance the scheme should go ahead.
Former First Minister Carwyn Jones was in favour of the project. But thanks to a major campaign and public pressure he postponed the decision on the M4 before stepping down in December 2018.
In June 2019, after 30 years of campaigning, we finally received the news we’d been hoping for.
The new First Minister Mark Drakeford went against the recommendation of the planning inspector, and ruled against the new road on cost and environmental grounds.
This is a huge success. It is testament to Friends of the Earth's long-term campaigning strength, supporting and working with local communities and other organisations to win against the odds.
It shows that government's can show leadership in tackling the climate crisis.
Please consider signing our petition calling on the UK government to do more to tackle the climate crisis.
If the road had gone ahead, it would have cut across several important fenland areas, including a total of 4 SSSIs.
Sections of Barecroft Common, where the cranes were spotted breeding, were subject to a compulsory purchase order.
"The motorway would snap the protected habitat like a cracker in two, isolating wildlife populations on either side of the divide," says Ian Rappel, Chief Executive of Gwent Wildlife Trust last year. "This will devalue the habitat on both sides of the motorway making both populations smaller and more vulnerable to local extinction.”
Even Wales's own environmental regulatory body, Natural Resources Wales, objected to the scheme.
Well-being of Future Generations Act
The decision on the M4 relief road was an important test of Wales's ground-breaking Well-being of Future Generations Act, which came into force in 2016.
The rejection of the M4 extension plan shows that this piece of legislation is alive and kicking. It requires all public bodies to consider the impact of their decisions on the future prosperity of people, environment, culture and communities.
Friends of the Earth Cymru played a leading role in drawing up the new law.
"At a time when we need to be dramatically cutting our greenhouse gas emissions, opening up huge swathes of precious countryside to roadbuilding would have been the wrong thing to do. It would not have given us a sustainable future," says Haf Elgar, director of Friends of the Earth Cymru.
The Future Generations Commissioner, Sophie Howe, who was appointed in 2016, was also a vocal critic of the plans. She said the route around Newport would not cut congestion and is a "20th century solution to a 21st century problem".
We already know that building more roads creates more traffic. It's time to start spending money on better public transport and making walking and cycling easier.
The Welsh government appears to be making decisions based on its declaration of a climate emergency in April.
The UK government has also declared a climate emergency. Please consider signing our petition telling politicians it's time to act.